Dear friends,

We are glad to inform you that after our pleasant experience with the Italian blog, the IIMA Human Rights Office has decided to open a new blog in English.

On this blog, you may follow our main activities with the United Nations and its mechanisms for the protection and promotion of human rights, as well as news from the UN bodies and IIMA offices in different countries related to the right to education.

Do you want to collaborate with us? You can apply for an internship at the IIMA Human Rights Office. Click here!

Have a great time reading!


November 25, 2015- International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women.

Six years after the General Assembly adopted the Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, in December 1999, the United Nations have established the International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women with the resolution 54/134. The day chose is not a causality, it evokes November 25, 1960, when during the dictatorship of Trujillo in the Dominican Republic, the three Mirabal sisters, opponents to the regime, where tortured and brutally assassinated.


10th Anniversary of the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) – A Focus on Prevention

On November 19, 2015 the office attended the panel discussion “10th Anniversary of the responsibility to Protect – A Focus on Prevention”, co-organized by the Responsibility to Protect (R2P) Core Group in Geneva and the Permanent Missions of Australia, Ghana, Hungary, Nigeria, Rwanda and Uruguay as part of the Geneva Peace Week 2015 at Palais de Nations.

The panelists were Jennifer Welsh, Special Adviser to the UN Secretary-General on Responsibility to Protect, Volker Türk, Assistant High Commissioner for Protection, Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Davide Rodogno, Professor of International History, Geneva Graduate Institute, Elisabeth Decrey Warner, Executive President, Geneva Call. The discussion was moderated by Simon Adams, Executive Director, Global Centre for the Responsibility to Protect (R2P).

Michael Møller, Director-General, UN Office at Geneva, made some introductory remarks recalling the birth of the Responsibility to Prot
ect (R2P) as the outcome document of the UN World Summit 2005 containing three fundamental pillars: 1) the responsibility for every state to protect its populations from genocide, war crimes, crimes against humanity and ethnic cleansing ; 2) the responsibility of the international community to encourage and assist states in fulfilling their duties and 3) to take appropriate collective actions, in a timely and decisive manner, in accordance with the UN Charter, if a state fails to protect its populations.


20 November - Universal Children’s Day

Today is the anniversary of the Convention which formulates in a consistent way the fundamental rights of every child to be guaranteed and recognized all around the world.

The Convention (November 20, 1989) provides a control mechanism to monitor the actions of the states party, which have to present a periodic report about the implementation of the rights of the child in their territory before a Committee of independent experts.

The Convention on the Rights of the Child is the most widely ratified human rights treaty. Until the present day, there are 196 states party to the Convention.

The Convention has 54 articles and three Optional Protocols (about the involvement of children in armed conflicts, about children’s sexual exploitation and about complaint procedures).


The role of International Organizations in the maintenance of peace and security

On November 18, 2015 the human rights office assisted to the panel discussion “The Evolution of the Role of International Organizations in the Maintenance of Peace and Security on the 70th Anniversary of the United Nations”, organized as part of the Geneva Peace Week 2015 in the UN Library.
The panelists were Ivan Ingravallo, Associate Professor of International Law, University of Bari Aldo Moro, Italy, Robert Kolb, Professor of Public International Law, University of Geneva, Roberto Virzo, Associate Professor of International Law, University of Sannio, Italy and Gian Luca Burci Legal Counsel, World Health Organization and Adjunct Professor of Law, Graduate Institute in Geneva. The discussion was moderated by Niels Blokker, Professor of Institutional Law, Leiden University, Netherlands; former Deputy Legal Adviser, Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs.


With suffering we speak

A night of terror and suffering, a new wage of pain for hundreds of families and French citizens.
The human rights office of IIMA and VIDES woke up heartbroken and without words in front of this new monstrosity and inhumane violence.
The members of the human rights office want to express our solidarity with all the persons affected and with the entire France, we condemn this act of hate and persistent violation of human rights.


The Venezuela President speaks to the Human Rights Council

Yesterday, November 12, 2015 the office attended the speech of Mr. Nicolás Maduro Moros, President of Venezuela, during a special session of the Human Rights Council at Palais de Nations. The speech was carried out three weeks before Venezuela holds parliamentary elections.
At the beginning of the session, the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, addressed President Maduro in a video message. The High Commissioner welcomed the participation of Venezuela in the Universal Periodic Review and urged Venezuela to ratify again the Inter-American Convention on Human Rights.


The Rome Statute and the International Criminal Court

On November 11, 2015 the office assisted to the panel discussion “The Rome Statute, Accountability and the Protection of Human Rights”, co-hosted by the Permanent Missions of Denmark and Cyprus to the UN, at Palais des Nations.
The panelists were Judge Silvia Alejandra Fernandez de Gurmendi, ICC President, Zeid Ra’ad Al Hussein, UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, Claudio Grossman, Chairperson of the Committee against Torture, Dr. David Donat Cattin, Secretary General - Parliamentarians for Global Action, Ambassador Christopher Onyanga Aparr, Permanent Representative of Uganda to the UN in Geneva and Ambassador Elayne Whyte Gomez, Permanent Representative of Costa Rica to the UN in Geneva.


Aung San Suu Kyi and Myanmar – The endless struggle of a leader and a country drenched in violence and oppression for democracy and peace

Myanmar, former Burma, has a long history of occupation and struggle for independence, democracy and self-determination. In the 19th and 20th century, the British and the Japanese occupied its territory. Finally, in 1962, the country reached independence but this step wasn´t as positive as awaited: with a coup d’état the military took control over the country and under the slogan “the Burmese Way to Socialism” transformed Myanmar in a single party state where freedom of expression and association were strongly restricted and human rights were constantly violated.
During these decades of oppression and violence, the world got to know the situation of Myanmar mostly through the story of Aung San Suu Kyi, the leader of the opposition party National League for Democracy (NLD). This woman of extraordinary strength and endless believe in freedom and human rights has dedicated almost thirty years of her life leading the Burmese population in its struggle for peace and democracy in Myanmar. She didn´t abandon Myanmar not even when she had to decide between her family and her country. Despite huge personal sufferance she always chose to continue fighting for and with her homeland.


Dialogue with two human rights experts.

On the 4th of November, 2015 the human rights office has hosted an encounter with Maria Francisca Ize-Charrin, former Director, Research and Right to Development Division Director a.i., Field Operations and Technical Cooperation Division at the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and in the afternoon to Dr. Elias Khouri, Representative of the Union of Arab Jurists at the United Nations at Geneva.

In the morning Mrs. Ize-Charrin talked about the path of human rights, what had happened in the world before they were recognized as rights, and what needs to be done to make sure they are respected and enjoyed by all. In particular, she stressed the fundamental link between human rights and spiritual values.

In the afternoon Dr. Elias Khouri, explained the situation in Syria, speaking about the history of the country and what lead to the present situation. He also explaining how the west media is transmitting a distorted image of the events, blaming Assad for all of them and excluding him from any negotiation of Syria’s future, even when most of the population is on his side


The Palestine President speaks to the Human Rights Council

On October 28, 2015 the office assisted to the speech of Mahmoud Abbas, President of Palestine, at Palais de Nations during a special session of the Human Rights Council. The speech was carried out two weeks after the Palestinian flag was raised at the United Nations in Geneva.
Mr. Abbas took the opportunity to thank the members of the Council for all their efforts to defend Palestine’s human rights and for the adoption of important resolutions that unveil the systematic violations of human rights in the occupied territories, the longest occupation in modern times.
For 70 years, Palestinians have been suffering the horrors committed against them by Israel and they are tired of Israel’s bloodshed. The President said, they will spare no efforts to protect, defend, and enable the Palestinian people to live in peace in their own land. Peace is still within reach and Palestine is stretching out for it.
He pleaded the Council to help Palestine and avoid pushing its people into further desperation, because there is nothing worse than despair and distrust of the present and the future. He asked the Council to be brethren to Palestine and let justice, peace and harmony prevail in its land; to allow children to dream of a life without violence and the young to have an education and a future to look forward to.o.


On October 24 the world will be painted blue

The 24th of October 2015 the world will be hit by a blue wave reaching all main monuments,
churches, archeological sites of almost 200 countries: blue, the official color of the United Nations that day celebrate its 70th birth anniversary.

The statue of the Christ the Redeemer in Rio de Janeiro, the Eiffel Tower in Paris, the Pisa Tower, the Pyramids in Egypt, the Empire State Building in New York, the Hermitage Museum in Russia, all these monuments will remind us that 70 years ago, on that date, the Charter of the United Nations entered into force establishing the birth of this international organization created to maintain peace and international security, to peacefully solve conflicts and to promote the respect for human rights and sustainable development.


VIDES European seminar “Volunteering changes the reality or the reality changes volunteering? An open horizon.”

This Saturday we had the pleasure to assist to the VIDES European seminar “Volunteering changes the reality or the reality changes volunteering? An open horizon.” together with several Salesian representatives from all over the world and VIDES ex-volunteers.

The speakers were Guido Barbera, president of VIDES International, Eugenio Melandri, Italian activist and politician, European parliamentarian, Co-founder of different associations and director of the magazine ”Solidarietá Internazionale”, Fabio Attard, Salesian’s international responsible of Youth Ministry, Sr. MariaGrazia Caputo, founder of VIDES and main representative to the UN at the IIMA Human Rigths Office in Geneva, Sr. Runita Borja, Councilor for Youth Ministry and four VIDES ex-volunteers.



On Tuesday, September 29, 2015 the office assisted to the “Cultural Rights and Vulnerable Groups” side event held by the UNESCO Basque Country Centre, UNESCO Etxea, and the International Catholic Centre of Geneva (CCIG).
The panel consisted of Mylène Bidault. Human Rights Officer at the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), Gemma Carbó, Director of the UNESCO Chair in Cultural Policies and Cooperation at the University of Girona and Beatriz Barreiro, Professor of Public International Law and International Relations at the Rey Juan Carlos University.


Oral statetment co-sponsored by VIDES

On the occasion of the 30th Session of Human Rights Council, IIMA addressed once again the topic of Youth Empowerment, by delivering an oral statement co-sponsored by VIDES.

The human rights office of IIMA and VIDES urged the  Council to address major challenges youth are facing in regards to the full enjoyment of their rights. The statement highlighted the importance of  young people as an instrument in fostering constructive dialog for the well being of present and future generations.

Accordingly, IIMA called on all Member States to take concrete actions at local and international levels in order to: (i) consider the UPR as an opportunity to share the best practices they have developed to address this problem; (ii) create strong partnership with civil society actors to develop adequate awareness and to disseminate relevant information to empower youth.


2030 Agenda for Sustainable Develpment of the United Nations.

On the 25th of September 2015 marked the 70th General Assembly of the United Nations and on its anniversary the debate on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development will take place, specifically the elaboration and discussion of the 17 Sustainable Development's Goals proposal.


Where is the Political Will to Stop the Wars in Syria and Iraq?

 Show me who makes a profit from war and I’ll show you how to stop the war.”
                                         Henry Ford

On Thursday, September 17, the office attended in conjunction with the 30th session of the Human Rights Council the side-event “Where is the Political Will to Stop the Wars in Syria and Iraq?” organized by the Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See along with Caritas International, Dominicans for Justice and Peace, World Evangelical Alliance and Associazione Comunita Papa Giovanni XXIII.

The war in Syria is about to come to its fifth year and an end to this conflict is nowhere to be seen. What started as a civil war has become a proxy war between Russia and the US. The governments have planned for war instead of planning for peace and diplomacy had not known a bigger defeat.
Arms and volunteers, tempted by the jihad death ideology, keep arriving from the West to fight in this holy war; bombing continues and the International Community hasn’t found a way to curve the supply of weapons. While waiting for a military solution that never came the International Community has lost many opportunities to reach a successful and peaceful solution. 


"True Truths"

Imagine, your daughter disappears with a child in her womb and you never know what happened to either of them…
Estela de Carlotto, a testimony of hope and peaceful fight
The 14 September 2015 the Permanent Mission of Argentina at the United Nations presented, at the Palais de Nations in Geneva, the movie “True truths” directed by Nicolás Gil Lavedra.  The protagonist Estela Barnes de Carlotto was among those present, as well as a large number of NGOs and ambassadors from the Human Rights Council Member States.
 “The truth is neither good nor bad. It is the truth.
And you have to know it.”
                                                                 (Estela de Carlotto)        


Inaguration of the 30th Session of the Human Rights Council

On Monday the office of human rights attended the 30th Session of the Human Rights Council at the Palais des Nations in Geneva, where the annual report of the United Nations High Commissioner for Humans Rights and the Report of the office of the High Commissioner and the Secretary General were discussed.
Present in the council were H.E. Mr. Mangala Samaraweera, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Sri Lanka, and H.E. Mr. Roberto Campa, Undersecretary for Human Rights, Ministry of the Interior, Mexico.
The Council was inaugurated by a touching speech of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, Zeid Ra'ad Al Hussein, who called attention to all the devastating humanitarian crisis happening across the world, but specially the Syrian crisis. He mentioned the recent tragedy of Aylan Al Kurdi and reflected on what efforts is the world undertaking to solve this refugee crisis. 


Peace is real only when shared.

If we have no peace, it is because we have forgotten that we belong to each other.-
Mother Theresa

It has been four years, 4 million refugees, 7.6 million of internally displaced people, 23 million in need and 220 000 deaths since Syria’s civil war started.

Desperate to flee the violence that has overran their country and their lives, Syrians are taking dangerous routes in the search for peace in nearby countries. One of this routes is the passage to Europe through the Mediterranean Sea, in which according to a UNHCR report, at least 2 500 Syrian refugees have died only this year. The Syrian crisis has become the worst refugee crisis since WWII.


States and Panelists Tackle Equal Enjoyment of the Right to Education for Girls

On June 16, IIMA and VIDES attended the “Panel on Realizing the Equal Enjoyment of the Right to Education by Every Girl” to end the second full day of the 29th Session of the Human Rights Council (HRC). The President of the HRC, Joachim Rucker, introduced the panel, noting that still close to 62 million girls around the world are not in school, and many suffer attacks only because they wish to attend.


Religions Together for Humanitarian Action

On May 27, 2015, IIMA and VIDES attended the Symposium “Religions Together for Humanitarian Action,” hosted by the Sovereign Order of Malta, at the United Nations. The morning panel discussed the present challenges for faith-based humanitarian institutions, while the afternoon panel tackled how to prepare for the future regarding better assistance and protection for civilian populations. There were many members of a variety of religious institutions in attendance (also reflected in the panel), along with many State representatives, and members of the general public.


With Creation of DINAF, Honduras Steps Up Efforts to Protect its Children

IIMA and VIDES attended the Convention on the Right of the Child (CRC) for Honduras on Wednesday, May 20, 2015. This Convention addresses all Human Rights associated with children, including the right to education, migration and the presence of unaccompanied minors, violence and insecurity, child labor, etc. At the request of the Committee, the Honduran delegation presented information about improvements to each of these human rights issues since the last CRC.


Ethiopian delegation addresses the Rights of the Child

On May 22, 2015, the Ethiopian delegation presented before the expert rapporteur members of the Committee on the Rights of the Child to discuss how they are promoting and protecting the rights of Ethiopian children within the borders and abroad, as well as other children living within Ethiopian borders. IIMA and VIDES were present as well.


The 29th Session of the Human Rights Council Begins Next Week

IIMA and VIDES will be attending the 29th session of the Human Rights Council starting next week. It meets three times a year, in March, June, and September, and is an inter-governmental body within the United Nations system responsible for strengthening the promotion and protection of human rights around the globe and for addressing situations of human rights violations and make recommendations on them. It has the ability to discuss all thematic human rights issues and situations that require its attention throughout the year.The Council is made up of 47 United Nations Member States which are elected by the UN General Assembly.


Thailand Presents at the Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights

The Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR) is the body of independent experts that monitors implementation of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights by its States parties. All States parties are obliged to submit regular reports to the Committee on how the rights are being implemented. The Committee examines each report and addresses its concerns and recommendations to the State party in the form of “concluding observations”.


How to Use the System to Get Your Voice Heard

On Monday, May 4, IIMA and VIDES attended a training organized by the International Catholic Center of Geneva (CCIG) aimed at helping NGOs and other stakeholders optimize their efforts to make their voice heard during the Universal Periodic Reviews (UPR). Since NGOs are not given the opportunity to speak during the UPR session, the best chance to voice concerns over the present Human Rights situation is the option to lobby States to bring up the concerns on the NGO’s behalf.


IIMA attends to the least, that they not feel alone

In Nepal, the commitment of IIMA toward the population affected by the earthquake continues through the provision of various forms of relief. In recent days, from dawn until late at night, braving all odds, the Daughters of Mary Help of Christians have managed to reach several interior villages in the districts of Kavre and Ramechap Manthali Bajar with material assistance.


A Struggle toward Dialogue in the Right to Peace

Last week, April 20-24, IIMA and VIDES participated in the third session of the intergovernmental working group on the Declaration of the Right to Peace. This is the last session before the text of the Declaration is presented before the Human Rights Council, so it was in everyone’s interest to come to a consensus by Friday night, though it is unclear what will actually be the final version until the Human Rights Council meets.


"Women of Power" Book Launch

On Wednesday, April 22, IIMA and VIDES attended the “Women of Power” book launch and panel, which featured Torild Skard (Norwegian politician and author), Elayne Whyte Gomez (Ambassador of Costa Rica), Nyaradzayi Gumbonzvanda (world leader of Young Women Christian Association), and Sigrun Habermann (moderator). It was held in the UNOG library, directly in front of “The Dream of Peace” fresco by Norwegian painter Henrik Sørensen.


For Victims of Torture, Is It Ever Enough?

UN Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture Expert Panelists

The discussion on the use of the UN Voluntary Fund for Victims of Torture took place on April 16, 2015. The Director of the Human Rights Treaties Division, Ibrahim Salama, opened the discussion by reminding everyone that the Fund has existed for 30 years and has raised more than US$160 million since its inception, and introduced the panel of experts, representing different sectors of victim support. They were Felicitas Treue, CCTI, Mexico; Suzanne Jabbour, RESTART, Lebanon; Adam Bodnar, on the Board of Trustees; C. Streetter, Representante Permanente Alterno de Chile – CTI; Peter Kiama, IMLU, Kenya; Lin Piwowarczyk, Boston Medical Center, USA; and Paulo David.


Oral Statement on Youth’s Participation

On the occasion of the 28th Session of Human Rights Council, IIMA addressed once again the topic of Youth Empowerment, by delivering and oral statement co-sponsored by VIDES International, Salesian Missions, Inc and VIS along with the support of Comitato per la promozione e protezione dei diritti umani, Don Bosco Network, Fundación Jovenes y Desarrollo, Misiones Salesianas and VIA Don Bosco BELGIUM.


Oral Statement, Item 6 of Italy and El Salvador

During the 28th session of the UN Human Rights Council (March 2nd to 27th, 2015) IIMA and VIDES contributed to the Universal Periodic Review (UPR) of Italy and El Salvador with a Joint Oral Statement for each country during item 6 (UPR - consideration of outcomes). Other NGOs, including local NGOs, supported both statements.
IIMA and VIDES took the opportunity to express satisfaction in seeing that both countries accepted most of the recommendations relating to the protection of children’s rights, young people and women; especially those in most vulnerable situations (migrants, Roma, unaccompanied minors, and children/youth living/working in the street). Recommendations were given to enact effective measures in order to combat violence against women and children, promote the right to education for all children, combat unemployment and underemployment for youth and women, ensure the recompilation and dissemination of national data relating to children living and/or working on the streets, and reinforce national policies pertaining to child labor.


Geneva Summit for Human Rights and Democracy

On Tuesday February 24th of 2015 the Geneva Summit for Human Rights and Democracy was carried out at the International Conference Center of Geneva with a successful outcome. Throughout the day, different discussion panels took place featuring human rights advocates and victims of human rights violations. Among them we can highlight the participation of Tamara Suju, Venezuelan Human Rights lawyer, Yeon-Mi Park, a 21 year old North Korean defector, Saa, a Nigerian schoolgirl who escaped from Boko Haram, Pierre Torres, a French journalist held hostage by ISIS for 10 months, Ashiq Masih, husband of Asia Bibi who’s currently on death row in Pakistan for blasphemy, María Corina Machado, Venezuelan opposition leader, Alex Chow and Lester Shum, Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Hong Kong Federation of Students, and Juan Francisco Sigler Amaya, Cuban Human Right’s activist; among others. 



On Wednesday February 18th, the Graduate Institute of Geneva hosted the screening of the movie “Difret”. Produced by Angelina Jolie, this award-winning film tells the story of a female Ethiopian lawyer who defends a 14 year old girl charged with killing a man who, claiming to follow traditions; abducted, raped, and intended to force her into forced marriage. The film was screened after brief welcome remarks by Philippe Burrin, Director of the Graduate Institute, and Michael Møller, Acting Director General of the United Nations Office at Geneva. 


Silent Victims of War : Cultural Heritage at Risk in Conflicts and Crises

The panel discussion entitled “Silent Victims of War: Cultural Heritage at Risk in Conflicts and Crises: the case of Syria seen through UNOSAT satellite imagery analysis" was held at UNOG Library on February 5, 2015. The discussion moderated by Francesco Pisano Director of Research and Technology Application Knowledge Systems at UNITAR, featured the participation of prominent speakers: Einar Bjørgo Director of UNOSAT, Vittorio Mainetti from the University of Geneva, Blandine Blukacz -Louisfert Chief of the Institutional Memory Section at the UNOG Library, Giovanni Boccardi Head of Unit for Preparedness and Emergency Response of the Cultural Sector of UNESCO, and Peter Stone Blue Shield International Secretary.

Informal consultation of the Open-ended Intergovernmental Working Group on the Right to Peace

On Friday, January 30th, IIMA attended the Informal Consultation with the Chairperson-rapporteur, Christian Guillermet-Fernandéz, of the Open-ended Intergovernmental Working Group on the Right to Peace.  The Human Rights Council decided in its resolution 20/15 of July 5, 2012, to establish this working group with the mandate of progressively negotiating a Draft United Nation declaration on the Right to Peace. This informal meeting took place exactly before the third session of the Working Group occurring next April 20. The session collected current opinions of States and NGOs in order to find out points of convergence to proceed with the elaboration of this draft text. During the first part of the meeting many States (Guatemala, Egypt, Cost Rica, Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay, Russia, Venezuela, Indonesia, Algeria), International Organizations and NGOs expressed their support to the Chairperson’s work, congratulating him and highlighting the importance of the right to peace as a prerequisite to all other rights established in international human rights instruments.


Interreligious Service for Peace “No longer slaves, but brothers and sisters”

Buddhists, Jews and Muslims joined Christians to pray and reflect on Pope Francis’ message for the world day for peace 2015 titled “No longer slaves, but brothers and sisters” at an interreligious service, held at Saint Nicolas de Flüe Church in Geneva this past January 19th.
A warm message from Mgr. Richard Gyhra (First Secretary of the Permanent Mission of the Holy See in Geneva) commenced the ceremony that welcomed the representatives of the distinct faiths and guests to reflect about the negative connotations that slavery denotes, as well as extending an invitation to promote and work towards peace. Invocations delivered in six languages called upon respect, solidarity, and fraternity across geographical and spiritual borders.


The Charlie Hebdo attack from a Human Rights Perspective

 “All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood”. After the terrorist attack against Charlie Hebdo’s headquarters in France last January 7th, there are no better words to help us reflect on the appalling nature of such events than those encompassed in the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UNDHR). If we, as a global community, wish to build a peaceful, democratic, and safer world, the notion of these inherent and inalienable rights must be placed at the center of our struggle.


Adoption of the UN Child Rights Resolution on Children Deprived of Liberty

On December 2014 the Child Rights Resolution of the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA), requesting for a Global Study on Children Deprived of Liberty to be carried out, was formally adopted. This was also achieved thanks to the efforts and mobilization of Civil Society. IIMA and VIDES contributed to support the campaign calling for such important Study.The text of the Resolution is available at http://www.un.org/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/C.3/69/L.24/Rev.1